Music and Health

The use of music listening as a self-care modality can offer a wide variety of benefits for health. It is our belief that the use of music as an inexpensive non-pharmacological form of therapy for healing and pain relief has been underutilized by practitioners and patients. While there are many anecdotal accounts on the benefits of music, this page is dedicated to providing citations for recently published literature that reports or reviews evidence or techniques for the effectiveness of music listening in health and wellness.

For the benefit of the average person, the casual listener, our primary focus will be on listening and not on specialized programs of music therapy. Certainly, music therapists can add an important dimension to complementary therapy, but music can also provide benefits for a very broad audience of individuals who use music listening as a personal therapeutic tool. Studies support the benefits of music listening to relieve pain, reduce anxiety and tension, enhance relaxation, improve metabolism, reduce respiratory rates, and improve blood pressure and heart rates.

In the future, we will provide a tip sheet for listening to help readers get the most out of the experience. Initially, it is important to know that music listening is a unique experience for each individual. The benefits of music are experienced best by the selection of music that is enjoyed by each listener and is appropriate for the type of outcome desired. Music that may provide stress relief for one person will differ for another, and melodies that can help provide pain relief may be different from those that aid in tension reduction. There is no single type of music that provides benefits for each person in every situation.

Read a brief summary of recent studies or reviews below; new literature will be posted as it is published.

Does listening to music during office-based flexible cystoscopy decrease anxiety in patients: A prospective randomized trial.
Raheem O, Mirheydar HS, Lee HJ, Patel ND, Godebu E, Sakamoto K.
Journal of Endourology. Jan 28 2015; [Epub ahead of print]
The abstract and options for full-text access can be found at:

Researchers from San Diego evaluated the effect of listening to music on perceived anxiety and pain experienced by veteran patients during office-based flexible cystoscopy. Patients (n=137) from a North American Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system who were scheduled to undergo an office-based flexible cyctoscopy procedure between June 2011 and June 2013 were recruited to participate in this randomized study. All participants in the music group (n=73) listened to an excerpt of classical music during the procedure, while 64 patients had the same procedure without music. Patients in both groups were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). The results showed a statistically significant difference in the median post-procedural STAI anxiety scores between the music and non-music groups of 30 (range 23-39) and 35 (range 28-49), respectively. The median post-procedural pain VAS score between the music and non-music groups also reached statistical significance at 0 (range 0-1) and 2 (range 1-2), respectively. The investigators concluded that this study demonstrates that listening to music decreases anxiety and pain associated with flexible cystoscopy in a VA patient population. They further recommend music listening as an effective adjunct that can be added to other anxiety- and pain-reduction modalities utilized at the time of flexible cystoscopy.

Music-Based Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
Hegde S.
Front Neurol. 2014 Mar 24;5:34. eCollection 2014.

Full-text access to the article is available at:

A researcher from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Science in India provides a review of the use of music therapy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to its effect on sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, TBI can impair a person's cognitive functions. This review provides a summary of the research findings on the role of music in cognitive rehabilitation. Neurologic music therapy (NMT) has been developed as a treatment method to improve sensorimotor, language, and cognitive functional domains through the use of music. One preliminary study of patients with TBI examined the effect of NMT in cognitive rehabilitation and showed promising results in the improvement of executive functions and emotional adjustment, as well as a decrease in depression and anxiety. The author stresses the need for additional quality systematic research studies to identify the potential of music-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy in conditions like traumatic brain injury.

Music reduces pain and increases functional mobility in fibromyalgia
Garza-Villarreal EA, Wilson AD, Vase L, Brattico E, Barrios FA, Jensen TS, Romero-Romo JI, Vuust P.
Frontiers in Psychology. 2014 Feb 11;5:90.
Full-text access to the article is available at:

Researchers from several countries collaborated on an investigation of the analgesic effects of music on fibromyalgia pain. Based on existing studies that have suggested that the analgesic effect of music may be secondary to cognitive and emotional responses that arise from music listening, patients with fibromyalgia (n=22) were passively exposed to 1) self-chosen, relaxing music, AND to 2) a control of pink noise. Levels of pain and functional mobility, using a timed up & go task (TUG), were measured after each auditory activity. Results showed that listening to relaxing, familiar, self-chosen music significantly reduced pain and increased functional mobility in this group of patients following the music intervention, not the control activity. Furthermore, the researchers reported that the effect cannot be explained solely by motor entrainment to the rhythm of the music because the music in this study was played prior to the motor task, not during the task. They concluded that their study "suggests that music reduces pain in fibromyalgia by means of cognitive and emotional mechanisms" with an analgesic effect that is strong enough to increase functional mobility.

Selection of music for inducing relaxation and alleviating pain
Chi G, Young A.

Holistic Nursing Practice. May-June 2011;25(3):127-135.

The authors, from two Texas universities, reviewed 31 articles on the selection of music to improve outcomes of pain, anxiety, relaxation, and stress. They focused on the choice of music as a means to an end: namely, relaxation or analgesia. Studies that evaluated different types of music in varied settings are reviewed and editorials by music therapists are discussed. This review reports that some studies show benefits when the patient selects the music and others indicate that expert-selected music was equally effective. The key factor appears to be the intended goal of the music . . . the awareness of whether the patient will benefit from sedating or stimulating music. The authors suggest using existing research to design music experiences that will satisfy patient needs.